In , the Dutch government announced a ban on the use of wild circus animals. In testimony in U. District Court in , Ringling Bros. Feld stated that these practices are necessary to protect circus workers. Feld also acknowledged that an elephant trainer was reprimanded for using an electric shock device, known as a hot shot or electric prod, on an elephant, which Feld also stated was appropriate practice.
Feld denied that any of these practices harm elephants. A year litigation against the Ringling Bros. On February 1, at the Great American Circus in Palm Bay, Florida , an elephant named Janet — February 1, went out of control while giving a ride to a mother, her two children, and three other children. The elephant then stampeded through the circus grounds outside before being shot to death by police. Tyke then bolted from the arena and ran through the streets of Kakaako for more than thirty minutes.
Police fired 86 shots at Tyke, who eventually collapsed from the wounds and died. In December of , New Jersey became the first state in the U. In in the United Kingdom, a parliamentary working group chaired by MP Roger Gale studied living conditions and treatment of animals in UK circuses. All members of this group agreed that a change in the law was needed to protect circus animals.
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Gale told the BBC, "It's undignified and the conditions under which they are kept are woefully inadequate—the cages are too small, the environments they live in are not suitable and many of us believe the time has come for that practice to end. A ban prohibiting the use of wild animals in circuses in Britain was due to be passed in , but Conservative MP Christopher Chope repeatedly blocked the bill under the reasoning that "The EU Membership Costs and Benefits bill should have been called by the clerk before the circuses bill, so I raised a point of order".
He explained that the circus bill was "at the bottom of the list" for discussion. The law states that circuses "constitute an act of cruelty. PETA called the German politicians to outlaw the keeping of animals for circuses.
A survey confirmed that on average, wild animals spend around 99 to 91 percent of their time in cages, wagons, or enclosure due to transportation. This causes a huge amount of distress to animals and leads to excessive amounts of drooling. City ordinances banning performances by wild animals have been enacted in San Francisco ,  Los Angeles ,  and New York City The reason being the high chance of the animals to harm someone in the audience.
This is due to their instincts which humans cannot control. On June 6, , the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe adopted a position paper in which it recommends the prohibition of the use of wild animals in traveling circuses. Despite the contemporary circus' shift toward more theatrical techniques and its emphasis on human rather than animal performance, traditional circus companies still exist alongside the new movement. In some towns, there are circus buildings where regular performances are held.
The best known are:. The International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo  has been held in Monaco since and was the first of many international awards for circus performers.
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The atmosphere of the circus has served as a dramatic setting for many musicians. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. The song title refers to William Kite , a well-known circus performer in the 19th century. Producer George Martin and EMI engineers created the song's fairground atmosphere by assembling a sound collage of collected recordings of calliopes and fairground organs, which they cut into strips of various lengths, threw into a box, and then mixed up and edited together randomly, creating a long loop which was mixed into the final production.
Following World War I, circus films became popular. Tromba , a film about a tiger trainer, was released in In Cecil B. Fellini made a second film set in the circus called The Clowns in Mera Naam Joker a Hindi drama film directed by Raj Kapoor which was about a clown who must make his audience laugh at the cost of his own sorrows. In the film Jungle Emperor Leo , Leo's son Lune is captured and placed in a circus, which burns down when a tiger knocks down a ring of fire while jumping through it.
The Greatest Showman , a musical film loosely based on the life of P. Barnum , was released in The TV series Circus Humberto , based on the novel by Eduard Bass , follows the history of the circus family Humberto between and The circus has also inspired many writers. Numerous books, both non-fiction and fiction, have been published about circus life. The novel Water for Elephants by Sara Gruen tells the fictional tale of a circus veterinarian and was made into a movie with the same title , starring Robert Pattinson and Reese Witherspoon.
Circus is the central theme in comic books of Super Commando Dhruva , an Indian comic book superhero. According to this series, Dhruva was born and brought up in a fictional Indian circus called Jupiter Circus. When a rival circus burnt down Jupiter Circus, killing everyone in it, including Dhruva's parents, Dhruva vowed to become a crime fighter.
A circus-based television series called Circus was also telecast in India in on DD National , starring Shahrukh Khan as the lead actor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Commonly a travelling company of performers. This article is about the event. For other uses, see Circus disambiguation. For the film, see 3 Ring Circus. Play media. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Main article: Contemporary circus. See also: List of circus skills. Worldwide laws on animal use in circuses . See also: Circus music. The Australian Story.ilacmadan.tk
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Melbourne Books. De Spectaculis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Loeb Classical Library. A History of the Circus. London: The Tantivy Press. Circus: A World History. London: Paul Elek. Retrieved London: Tantivy Press. BBC News.
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